Improve Summer Chlorine Levels without Blowing DBPs

Posted by Lily Kaiserman on 8/18/15 1:36 PM

When summer temperatures rise, chlorine demand inside storage tanks increases and water quality can degrade. Warm water temperatures, particularly at the top of the tank, increase biological growth, deplete residual disinfectant and increase the formation rate of disinfection by-products (DBPs). Thermal stratification also creates hot and humid conditions inside the headspace, greatly accelerating corrosion rates inside steel tanks. One effective solution to combat stratification and maintain disinfectant residual levels is active mixing. A powerful mixer eliminates thermal and chemical stratification inside tanks and reduces the growth of biofilms and DBPs. Below, we answered three common questions on maintaining residual disinfectant levels inside water storage tanks.

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Topics: active mixing, eliminate stratification, drinking water quality, PAX Water Mixer, storage tanks, water circulation, passive mixing, mixing systems, low turnover

3 Questions Answered on Managing and Avoiding Nitrification

Posted by Susan Brenner on 7/28/15 2:27 PM

Chloramines are an attractive option for secondary disinfection - they're chemically stable, persistent and produce much lower levels of disinfection by-products (DBPs). However, because chloramination involves mutiple chemical reactions between ammonia and chlorine, managing the chemistry of chloraminated water distribution systems is tricky. Chlorine is consumed as water travels through the distribution system and reacts with organic matter, and free ammonia can be left behind. For this reason, nitrification becomes a principal water quality management issue for chloraminated water systems. We have received many inquiries from operators about how to manage and avoid nitrification in water storage tanks, below we answered three common questions.

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Topics: drinking water quality, nitrification, eliminate nitrification, thermal stratification

5 Questions Answered on Designing In-Tank Aeration for THM Removal

Posted by Lily Kaiserman on 10/15/13 2:21 PM

Trihalomethanes (THMs) are a type of disinfection byproduct (DBP) that form when chlorine reacts with naturally occurring organic matter in water. THMs are the most common type of regulated DBP that water utilities struggle with. In-tank aeration has been proven to be effective at lowering THM levels in water distribution systems. But choosing an aeration system that balances THM removal with operating cost is not straightforward. Below, we have compiled some common questions we have received on in-tank aeration design.

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Topics: in-tank aeration, THM removal, storage tanks, stage 2 dbp

3 Questions Answered About Ice Formation in Storage Tanks

Posted by Lily Kaiserman on 9/16/13 4:47 PM

Water is an unusual liquid. In warm temperatures, the warmer more buoyant water will rise to the top of a tank and the cooler more dense water will sink to the bottom. In the winter, when water cools to its freezing point, it becomes lighter and floats to the top. As you heat up water from its freezing point, it gets heavier for the first few degrees and is at its densest at 4°C above freezing. It can all seem very counterintuitive! If you decide to use a heater inside your storage tank to prevent ice formation, you will have to overheat the water to make it buoyant enough to float to the top. This will require a lot of extra energy. By combining heating with active mixing, you can actually keep the tank ice-free during the winter and use substantially less energy.

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Topics: ice prevention in storage tanks, ice damage, freeze protection

3 Design Challenges to Consider Before Mixing Tanks

Posted by Lily Kaiserman on 12/11/12 12:21 PM

There are many design factors for operators and engineers to consider when specifying mixers for water storage tanks – ranging from tank size and geometry to obstructing tank internals like columns and baffles. Below are the three of the most common questions we’ve received regarding mixing and storage tank design.  Feel free to add your own tank design challenge to the list by leaving a comment below.

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Topics: active tank mixing, eliminate stratification, disinfectant residual, storage tanks

How to Prevent Ice Damage inside Water Storage Tanks

Posted by Lily Kaiserman on 9/10/12 5:58 PM

In the water distribution system, cold weather can create risks that are hidden from plain sight: ice accumulation inside water storage tanks. Often, when operators realize they have a problem with ice buildup in their tanks, the tank’s interior is already damaged or the wall is punctured. Additionally, traditional methods for reducing ice formation inside water tanks have been expensive, difficult and often only partially effective.

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Topics: active tank mixing, PAX Water Mixer, mixer case studies, freeze protection

Biomimicry in Action [VIDEO]

Posted by Lily Kaiserman on 8/29/12 12:30 PM

Six years ago, PAX Water Technologies entered the water industry with a novel approach for improving water quality in storage tanks – biomimicry. By examining how fluids move in the natural world, PAX Water Technologies Founder Jay Harman, developed a small yet powerful impeller that mimics the spiral flow patterns found in whirlpools and tornados. This 6-inch “Lily” impeller is not only organic in shape (it resembles a Calla Lily), it can mix a 10 million gallon storage tank using the same energy footprint as three 100-watt light bulbs.

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Topics: biomimicry, impeller, pax scientific

Thermal Stratification Inside Water Storage Tanks [VIDEO]

Posted by Lily Kaiserman on 8/6/12 12:36 PM

Record-setting heat waves are sweeping the country this summer, placing higher-than-usual demand on water utilities. High water use by consumers typically translates into high turnover in water storage tanks, giving water less time to age and stagnate within the tank. However, areas with large capacity tanks or low summer demand can suffer from thermal stratification inside water storage tanks and serious water quality problems.

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Topics: active tank mixing, eliminate stratification, stratification, low turnover

Top Five Mixing Questions from ACE12 in Dallas

Posted by Lily Kaiserman on 6/20/12 1:26 PM

PAX Water Technologies had a great time in Dallas at ACE12 last week – our new THM Removal System (TRS) was featured at the New Product Technology Showcase and we fielded many great questions from ACE12 attendees at our booth. We always appreciate the opportunity to hear directly from operators and engineers about their water quality challenges.   

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Topics: active tank mixing, PAX Water Mixer, mixer case studies, ace 2012

THM Removal for Stage 2 Compliance [VIDEO]

Posted by Lily Kaiserman on 5/24/12 12:54 PM

The Stage 2 DBP rule is here and presenting tough choices for water system operators. Upgrades to the treatment plant are expensive and constrained by existing infrastructure. Changing disinfectants can also be expensive and difficult to sell to a wary board and community.

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Topics: PAX Water Technologies, drinking water quality, in-tank aeration, THM removal, dbp formation


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