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San Jose in-tank aeration

A Proactive Approach

San Jose has faced unprecedented challenges due to the CA drought, including a reduced water supply and an increase in THM levels. Managers at San Jose Water wanted to eliminate the risk of a future operational exceedance in the summer of 2014—when THM levels were expected to be highest, and decided to look into in-tank aeration.

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Nitrification Control Strategies

Nitrification Control Strategies

For any drinking water utility using chloramine disinfection, nitrification is a serious concern. The most important steps utilities can take to manage nitrification are to thoroughly understand their systems’ chloramine chemistry, establish an effective monitoring strategy, and deploy multiple preventive strategies holistically throughout their distribution systems.

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Active Mixing Improves Tank Residual Levels & Stabilizes Water Quality

Active Mixing Improves Tank Residual Levels & Stabilizes Water Quality

Managing residual disinfectant levels in a water distribution system can be a complex balancing act, involving frequent adjustments and boosting disinfectant to maintain residuals. With the addition of the Stage 2 Disinfection By-products rule, municipal operators in California struggled to control residual levels while avoiding unnecessary boosting.

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Spray Aeration System Reduces THM Levels by 53% in an 8 MG Water Tank

Spray Aeration System Reduces THM Levels by 53% in an 8 MG Water Tank

Anticipating implementation of the Stage 2 Disinfection By-products rule, operators in Rockville, MD evaluated a range of tools and technologies to manage the THMs in their drinking water system. Staff and engineers determined the combination of in-tank aeration and active tank mixing would reduce THM formation. Installation of a PAX Mixer and aeration system solved the water quality issues without decommissioning and rebuilding the tank.

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Mixer Keeps 100,000-Gal Elevated Tank Ice Free During Polar Vortex Winter Storm

Mixer Keeps 100,000-Gal Elevated Tank Ice Free During Polar Vortex Winter Storm

A typically cold climate, the town of Atwater, Minnesota was no stranger to polar conditions. Formation of ice inside the city’s 100,000 gallon elevated tank frequently plugged the riser pipe, disabling flow and causing potential for serious damage to the steel tank. Anticipating a major storm, a PAX Mixer was installed to actively mix the water to prevent ice formation. During the record-breaking polar vortex storm, Atwater experienced more than a week of average temperatures below 0 degrees with extreme wind chill conditions, but after the addition of a PAX Mixer, ice formation was a problem of the past.

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How Mixing Improves Disinfectant Retention & Stabilizes Water Quality

How Mixing Improves Disinfectant Retention & Stabilizes Water Quality

Maintaining disinfectant residual levels in drinking water systems can be a challenge, even under normal conditions. Water must travel through several kilometres of pipes and is often stored in water tanks and basins before reaching customers. However, when the distance between the treatment plant and customer is extensive, maintaining adequate disinfectant levels becomes even harder.

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Smart Distribution Systems

Smart Distribution Systems

Traditional improvement approaches of treatment plant upgrades or improvements to the primary water source have proven costly and time consuming. Many utilities have begun using technologies in the distribution itself to stabilize and improve water quality. The addition of powerful mixing systems and automated dosing has allowed operators to dial back the amount of total disinfectant required, improving the quality of the water without expensive treatment system upgrades.

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Mix It Up

Mix It Up

As regulations tighten, utilities striving for optimum water quality are turning their attention to the distribution system. Within the system, even the highest quality water can deteriorate by stagnation and stratification. Despite today’s advanced treatment and disinfection technologies, water utilities are discovering the simple process of mixing is a cost-effective way to maintain the highest possible quality water in storage and throughout the distribution system.

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Ice Out

Ice Out

In most northern climates, the winter cold brings with it the risk of ice formation inside water storage tanks, contributing to costly damage, corrosion and decreased water quality. PAX CEO Dr. Peter Fiske discusses options for ice prevention in this Q&A with WSO Magazine.

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Beat the Chill

Beat the Chill

Rural water systems across the United States face a range of challenges in maintaining water quality in their distribution systems. Unlike large municipal systems, rural water systems often have a distribution network that is spread out over many miles. This can result in high water age and low disinfectant residual in parts of their system.

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Cold Weather Cure

Cold Weather Cure

In the water distribution system, cold weather can create a risk that is hidden from view: ice accumulation inside water storage tanks. Often, when operators realize they have a problem with ice in their tanks, it is too late—the tank’s interior is damaged or the wall is punctured.

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Posttreatment Aeration to Reduce THMs

Posttreatment Aeration to Reduce THMs

Posttreatment aeration inside water storage tanks can be used as a cost-effective option to strip trihalomethanes from finished water. This paper explores how different design variables affect THM removal rates for diffused aeration and spray aeration systems.

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Lowering THM Levels and Achieving Stage 2 DBP Rule Compliance with In-Tank Aeration

Lowering THM Levels and Achieving Stage 2 DBP Rule Compliance with In-Tank Aeration

Across California and Nevada, implementation of the Stage 2 D/DBP Rule is spurring utilities to explore a range of strategies for improving water quality in their water systems.

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Power Makes the Difference in Active Mixing

Power Makes the Difference in Active Mixing

Mixing in potable water storage tanks is increasingly recognized as an important factor in improving water quality and protecting tank assets. Thorough mixing eliminates thermal stratification and ensures uniform conditions in tanks, which has been shown to lower overall disinfectant residual demand and reduce the risk of nitrification.

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Best Practices: Complying with the Stage 2 D/DBP Rule

Best Practices: Complying with the Stage 2 D/DBP Rule

With the arrival of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule in 2006, water utilities began examining options to achieve compliance. Much of the attention has focused on ways of lowering organic matter concentrations at water treatment plants. Fortunately, distribution system O&M strategies often can be implemented quickly and inexpensively.

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In-Tank THM Removal System Eliminates THMs for Rural Consecutive System

In-Tank THM Removal System Eliminates THMs for Rural Consecutive System

Stanly County, in central North Carolina, is typical of many smaller rural water utilities in the U.S. Due to excess capacity in the city water system that supplies the surrounding county, Stanly County receives finished water that is often at or above the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for Total Trihalomethanes (TTHMs). Without a treatment plant of its own, Stanly County is limited to few options for bringing their water into compliance.

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In-Tank Aeration Predicts and Reduces THMs

In-Tank Aeration Predicts and Reduces THMs

The Stage 2 Disinfectants/Disinfection Byproducts Rule is presenting tough choice for many water system managers. While some operators have used aeration to reduce Trihalomethanes in storage tanks in the past, it has produced encouraging but inconsistent findings. Now, a Texas utility is using PAX Water's in-tank THM removal system (TRS) with good results.

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Tame Nitrification with Active Mixing

Tame Nitrification with Active Mixing

For most U.S. distribution systems using chloramination, nitrification is a leading water quality concern. However, by combining active mixing with regular tank maintenance and efficient operation, nitrification can be tamed in even the most challenging climates.

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Fire and Ice - Tame Temperature Extremes in Water Tanks

Fire and Ice - Tame Temperature Extremes in Water Tanks

A Maine utility uses active mixing to cope with storage tank stratification caused by widely varying seasonal temperatures. Using a PAX Water Mixer, the utility was able to solve residual loss in the hot summer months and prevent ice damage in cold winter months.

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Mix It Up And Go Green

Mix It Up And Go Green

Jason Oppenheimer and Peter S. Fiske of PAX Water discuss how active mixing in water storage tanks prevents water quality deterioration from spreading to the distribution system, eliminates the need for flushing and enhances operational efficiency by preventing thermal stratification and ensuring uniform distribution of disinfectants.

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Keeping Ice From Ruining Your Water Tank

Keeping Ice From Ruining Your Water Tank

PAX Water CEO Peter Fiske discusses the pitfalls of ice damage in water tanks and explains how active mixing can be used as an ice prevention tool. Dr. Fiske points to real world examples of utilities using mixing to safeguard storage tanks, including Dawson Creek, British Columbia and Anchorage, Alaska.

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